Shakespeare's output of forty surviving plays[i] had a massive impact on the 20th Century. Starting with King John (1899) there have been over four hundred attempts to film the works[ii]. Many plays have been the inspiration of operas. For instance operatic versions of Othello have been made both by Verdi and Rossini[iii]. Operatic forms also exist of Macbeth, Julius Caesar and Romeo and Juliet; which has also survived it's creator into ballet form. Ballets, symphonies, and musicals have also been inspired by other plays. This essay explores this phenomenon in the context of a single play: The Tempest. The Tempest was almost certainly written 1610-1611[iv] and has proved one of Shakespeare's most enduring plays.[v]
The Tempest's afterlife is so large that it is not possible to do justice to it in a single essay; consideration of just Robert Browning's 'Caliban upon Setebos' alone would required an essay. The focus in this essay is to look at the broad sweep of the afterlife of this play across a range of art forms. The particular pieces investigated are principally those where a body of criticism (primarily professional but occasionally augmented with the responses from amateurs on the Internet) exists that can be used to contextualise my own response.
Robert Browning's poem Caliban upon Setebos[vi]. Caliban is the only character in the play to refer to Setebos. He does so twice. Firstly in Act 1 Scene 2 at line 375 when Prospero threatens him:
Caliban: [ Aside ] : I must obey: his Art is of such pow'r,
It would control my dam's god, Setebos,
And make a vassal of him.
Later in the play, Act 5 Scene 1 line 261 where Caliban, Stephano and Trinculo have been driven in by Ariel:
Caliban: O Setebos, these be brave spirits indeed!
was a god of the Patagonians[vii].
(Kermode). The name occurs in
In 1695 Henry Purcell wrote[viii] an opera (or perhaps more accurately as Britannica, and sources generally, classifies it a semi-opera[ix]) Tempest - The Enchanted Island. A popular song from which is 'Full fathom five'.
Perhaps the most famous piece[x] of non-dramatic music directly related to The Tempest is Jean Sibelius' Symphony No.2 in D major, op.43 'The Tempest': Suite No.1, op.109/2. He wrote this work in 1925 (and along with the tone poem Tapiola (1925-6)) is the last of his major works; though he lived another 32 years.[xi]
Return To The Forbidden Planet[xii]. Bob Carlton's comedy musical event. 1989 and touring variously since.
This is a modern musical where all the dialogue comes from Shakespeare, not just from The Tempest. The story is a whimsical tangential outing starting from the film Forbidden Planet (i.e. the film that starts with a framework borrowed from The Tempest). The inevitable result is a tangent to a tangent so very little of The Tempest survives (little of the film survives either). It is set in the B movie world of the 1950s Indeed Gerry Anderson, of Thunderbirds fame, was brought in to give the technology a 1950s B movie look. The result is a novel, hopelessly low brow (though at the same time there is the continual challenge of naming the play that line was from), with overly loud, familiar 50s Rock 'n' Roll. A curiosity and in my opinion the weakest work discussed here. The programme and in-flight magazine are littered with weak humour that are a characteristic of the musical. Patrick Moore as chorus provides a little balance to all this nonsense but only a little. It is the sort of entertainment that invites the audience to simply turn off their brain and enjoy themselves; rather different to Shakespeare's plays.
1979 the American choreographer Glen Tetley collaborated with Norwegian
composer Arne Nordheim to make a two hour ballet[xiii]
based on The Tempest with Christopher Bruce performing the role of Prospero
(stagebill). Few reviews seem to be online. However, one site (Ballet Co
The Tempest On Stage
the purposes of this essay stage productions of 'The Tempest' are seen as part
of the play's natural continuance rather than it's afterlife. The only
intention here is to look at the source available to interpreter's of the play
in other media. In 1667 John Dryden with William Davenant rewrote the play,
changing the plot and adding characters. This version was performed until the
late eighteenth Century. Their period of dominance was briefly broken by
Charles Macklin and David Garrick who in 1746, and 1757 restored Shakespeare's
This section is a survey of and a personal response to a selection of the many filmed versions of and variations on 'The Tempest'.
There are many challenges for presenting The Tempest. Firstly, the changing reaction to Caliban[xiv]. The Ariel/Prospero relationship. The Prospero/Miranda relationship. Is there forgiveness and reconciliation at the end? Is Prospero going to regret giving us his power. Will Caliban enjoy life alone on the island at the end: this is perhaps best addressed as Caliban is largely driven by his desire to achieve this. Will Ariel remain? Is Shakespeare casting himself as Prospero? The Tempest is generally agreed to be Shakespeare's last non-collaborative work so, through Prospero, Shakespeare's may saying his farewell to the stage and his power as nonpareil dramatist. As is shown later, some versions cut Prospero's closing address to the audience. What should be cut? Since, a three hour film is unlikely to be commercially successful. Should anything be added? Where should it be located? When should it be located?
Differences between stage and film
Currently, movies tend to be gauged to a large degree by the realism and spectacle of their special effects. This may suggest that they are not an obvious medium for the work of William Shakespeare who wrote primarily for an audience[xv] - a set of people who hear. Conversely, the storm and the masques in the text are naturally suited to today's technology and sense of lavishness. (One film has an almost "Hello, Dolly" masque scene.) Plays on the other hand, are more emotionally intensive; exploring more people's journeys through life. The potential is there for a happy marriage between the two but there is also a danger of having too stagy a production so you put off the general audience, or you changed Shakespeare so much that it's hardly identifiable and critical opinion will bury the film.
The films are run through in order of making.
1908 - Percy Snow - 12 minutes[xvi].
("Cast unknown"[xvii] ) This film starts before the play does with Prospero, his book[xviii] and a child Miranda.[xix] We then discover Caliban - a wild man of the woods that Prospero quickly subdues. Prospero then releases a female Ariel from a tree - looking rather - then we skip 10 years and see a teenage We are shown that Ariel can disappear and re-appear at will. Miranda and non-aged (of course) Ariel argue with a pleading Caliban (so he is quite romantic in contrast to the alleged rape of Miranda ('seek to violate my child')). I have to say that I have a fondness for old films; they particularly lend themselves to a creative arty style. I also like the enthusiasm that they seem to impart. A wonderful feeling of simply "let's make a film"; long before the soul-less, cynical age of movie-making. The 'special effect' of the ship tossing on the sea in the tempest that Prospero has just raised is laughable by today's standard but it is adequate for my tastes. Moreover, however primitive films may seem by today's audience they were, of course, only in competition with the even more limited (from a special effect perspective) medium of the stage. So people would have been used to non-realistic style of effects in story-telling
No famous lines from the film are displayed on screen so we are not treated to 'Ye elves' for instance. Only the briefest of captions are displayed, such as: Aerial is sent to bring Ferdinand to Miranda.
Just as the story seems to be about to start proper we have the caption "Friends Once More" followed by "Ariel Released" so quite a lot has been lost hereJ! Then a boat (balsa wood??) is pushed on between the 'rocks' and suddenly there is a feeling of being in film pioneer Georges Méliès'[xx] Le Voyage dans la lune (1902; "A Trip to the Moon"),
Yellow Sky. 1948.
This film is not normally associated with The Tempest but at least critic, Pauline Kael, can see a link in this Western with Gregory Peck (Stretch/Prospero) and Anne Baxter (Miranda/Mike(!)) in a ghost town on the edge of a desert.[xxi] Kael wrote: "The Tempest in the 40s had been set in a ghost town at the edge of a desert in YELLOW SKY, and with a humour frequently indulged in under cover of the Western genre".
Forbidden Planet. 1956. 99 minutes.
Miranda, Ferdinand, Prospero and Ariel in Wilcox's tangential SF version of 'The Tempest'
The most surprising thing about this film perhaps is not that it is based on The Tempest but that it was made by MGM. The studio that made 'The Wizard Of Oz' was not noted for it's films in the science fiction genre and though the film was moderately successful it did not make another SF film for some years.
This is a substantially different use of a Shakespeare play. Shakespeare is not given an on-screen credit and the introduction that we have to the play is a short piece of narration indicating that the ship has been sent to investigate a remote colony[xxii]. In director Fred M Wilcox's film screenwriter Cyril Hume has taken a story by Irving Block and Allen Adler with the Tempest at it's base. We have here the essentials of the background and atmosphere of the play but the creative team do something with them. There is a rough character mapping as follows. Dr Morbius (played by Walter Pidgeon) is (Prospero) a scientist who together with his daughter (Miranda) Altaira (played by Anne Francis) are the soul survivors of a colony on a distant planet. All the other colonists were killed off shortly after the settlement was establishment. Being a genius Dr Morbius has furnished their luxurious home with a wealth of comforts and technology including Robby the Robot[xxiii] (Aerial) (Robby plays himself, of course, but due to a bad manager he eventually ended up on the considerably inferior 'Lost In Space'.) The commander of a spaceship that comes to check the planet (Ferdinand) (played by Leslie Nielsen). Caliban has a very original equivalent out of the works of Sigmund Freud; the
The critics like it. Leonard Maltin summarises ' … remains one of the most ambitious and intelligent films of its genre; only slow, deliberate pacing works against it …. Great effects, eerie electronic score. ' Pauline Kael is also enthusiastic 'The best[xxv] of the science-fiction interstellar productions of the 50s lifted its plot and atmosphere from Shakespeare'. Roger Ebert was similarly impressed: 'Contrast this film [The 1982 'Tempest'] with FORBIDDEN PLANET, a science fiction film that also begins with the underlying materials of The Tempest, but transforms them into its own terms so cleverly that most viewers remained unaware of its inspiration.'
Geoff Andrew in The Timeout Film Guide: "Classic '50s sci-fi, surprisingly but effectively based on The Tempest … An ingenious script, excellent special effects and photography, and superior acting (with the exception of Francis), make it an endearing winner."
Peter Nichols, writing in his 'Encyclopaedia of Science Fiction', wrote "Although Wilcox was new to SF cinema (his best-known film was 'Lassie Come Home[xxvi]), Forbidden Planet is one of the most attractive movies in the genre with excellent special effects … The resonances of Forbidden Planet stem in part from the fact that it is an updated version of Shakespeare's The Tempest.'"
In Halliwell's guide: "Intriguing sci-fi with a plot derived from The Tempest and a Prospero who unwittingly creates monsters from his own id. High spirits and suspense sequences partially cancelled out by wooden playing from the younger actors and some leaden dialogue." The guide also quotes New Yorker 1977: "It's a pity they didn't lift some of Shakespeare's language"
John Clute wrote "Based on Shakespeare's Tempest, this is one of the great SF films: a rich, strange, brave, new world; Robbie the Robot; huge vistas; delights, and high talk are all there."
Phil Hardy wrote "One of the most charming works in the Science Fiction genre, Forbidden Planet is nothing less than an updated version of Shakespeare's The Tempest … is clearly mounted as a juvenile offering … presumably why Wilcox[xxvii] was assigned to direct. However, Wilcox … had other ideas and delicately, step by step, set about subverting the fairy story and transforming it into a nightmare. … Although the film is charmingly mounted for the most part, some of the details, notably the comic interludes, are intrusive and some of the acting wooden, but .. Forbidden Planet .. has an adventurousness about it that is wholly compelling."
Although I like this science fiction film with its groundbreaking electronic score[xxviii] it is spoilt by the amazingly boring interplay by the crewmen and the Miranda figure. There is a piece of humour that is funnier post Star Trek as we have a discussion between the chief engineer and the commander concluding with the commander saying "All right it's impossible. So how long will it take?" This interplay was oft repeated in Star Trek between Kirk and Scottie. The science fiction aspects are handled better than the attempts to inject a Ferdinand/Miranda romance. Though the humour afforded by the ship's cook is a good transposition of Trinculo. It is also interesting that in this film Prospero and Caliban are merged[xxix]. It is eventually revealed, in the character of Dr Morbius through his pursuit of knowledge[xxx]. It seems clear that the film's posters were designed around an original brief for the movie that Wilcox bravely struggled against. Wilcox has inoffensively taken a Shakespearean collection of characters with their brooding atmosphere and ingeniously transplanted them into our future on a remote planet. Having taken a classical starting point he has put a unique stamp on his concept by merging in ideas from Freud and plausible future science fact. The effects are impressively realised and not at all with odds of the claims made about the planets previous inhabitants, the Krell. This is an excellent variation on Shakespeare into a different genre spoilt only by the mindlessness of most of the crew and the Miranda figure. Moreover, this film works as it makes no difference whether the viewer is familiar with Shakespeare. Wilcox does not simply stage it (the way Mussorgsky (CHECK) appears to do, ridiculously condense it (as the 1908 Percy Snow film) and the 1992 Animated Tales do. He adds something very new to it so the film stands up in its own right.
The Tempest - 1960[xxxi]. Georges Schaefer
This entertaining version was made by a very strong cast. A very young indeed Lee Remick[xxxii] as Miranda. Maurice Evans[xxxiii] as Prospero. Roddy McDowall[xxxiv] as Aerial. Richard Burton as Caliban. It is perhaps a little surprising that this production was made at all. It is clearly low-budget and the main players were successful in their careers at this time[xxxv] (I have not been able to find any interviews on the Internet as to why any of the principal actors appeared in this; presumably it was out of love of Shakespeare and mutual respect for the other actors and director.)
This breaks the acts up differently. For instance, Miranda's I am Your wife which is in the play's Act 3 is shown in the segment with on-screen title of Act 2. The film has an ethereal quality which works well with the notion of Prospero's remote and strange island and a particularly airy aerial.
first sight the set suggests that we are going to see the "Ice Queen"
as both Ariel and the island have a frosty, frozen aspect. I have only recently
become aware of this version when it appeared in the RST shop at
This is perhaps a light production, presumably aimed at teenagers studying the play at school (for instance, the effect of projector the King's head into a glass bottle whilst Prospero tells Miranda her history, so the darkness of Caliban's situation is lost, but this is a nonetheless a worthwhile production. This production ends with "Our little life is ended with asleep".
The Tempest - Derek Jarman. 1980.
like Greenaway populates his film with some representations of grossness[xxxvii]
in a play that be put on the stage an almost homely; almost a dark
The film opens with Prospero almost having a nightmare hearing the voices of his victims and then waking; this opening put me in mind of a Frankenstein film. . This film has a slight feel of the Orson Welles Macbeth and Othello as economies have certainly been made. Shot on 16mm and with the barest of titles, it has that same feel of a film made by an enthusiast. We see Caliban go for Miranda whilst she is bathing in her room, but it is more of a brother and sister scene; Miranda seems amused by it; she kicks him out of the room.
Elizabeth Welch sings Stormy Weather in the masque (with the sailors) in an almost "Hello, Dolly" scene. Clearly, an attempt to provide some light relief. It looks strangely like a Morecambe and Wise star musical piece; perhaps their South Pacific piece in which they had a number of newscasters.
Toyah Wilcox has mentioned in interview[xli] being taken out for a meal by Derek Jarman and having him discuss his concept with her. She was surprised to be offered the part; and initially put off by having any part in a film of a Shakespeare play. But she came to trust his judgement. She was pleased that he had cut the "boring bits"! Miranda and Ferdinand are both portrayed as intelligent; sometimes, at least on the stage, they have been played as light and simple.
Cuts and alterations. 'Ye elves' is re-arranged (as are other pieces[xlii]). At first it seems that it has been cut. With any Shakespeare play committed to film, significant cuts are expected[xliii] (and were made) but it is placed after:
… I do forgive thee.
Unnatural though thou art.
It is delivered by Prospero reading from a book. This was an interesting touch. Possibly it suggests a pre-destined perspective, or that Prospero is looking back on it all; that he has sent himself a message in a bottle. It could also (but this is probably not the intention) suggest that it's happening in a loop, that there is no escape.
Ariel's departure is of interest. He sings "There suck I" whilst alone (not while helping Prospero) and then disappears without a further word to Prospero.
The film then ends with:
We are such stuff
As dreams are made on, and our little life
Is rounded with a sleep
This is a safe, natural, 'rounded' way to end the film with lines that will be familiar to even people who have only a slight knowledge of Shakespeare. Thus the problem of how, if at all, Prospero's address should be updated for the new media is side-stepped.
Tempest - Paul Mazursky 1982 - 140 minutes.
Paul Mazursky's Tempest, a comedy drama set on a
Prospero's Books. 1991. Peter Greenaway. 126 minutes.
Peter Greenaway has made a very original film accompanied by an excellent pseudo-hypnotic soundtrack by Michael Nyman[xlvii]. John Gielgud plays Prospero with most of the expected cast silent until the end of the film. Most of the cast are nude, mercifully Gielgud isn't. Greenaway's film is part pop video, part technically sophisticated (for 1991) layering of montages of Shakespeare's Tempest. Greenaway has an interest, perhaps an obsession with Prospero's twenty-four books[xlviii]. Shakespeare, of course, indicates Prospero has just the one book. His book of magic. Greenaway to derive Prospero presumably thinks that Shakespeare has merely omitted his non-magic books. Or he could simply mean the books he left behind. Prospero does mention his library which "was dukedom large enough". Alternatively, he could be conceiving a desert island Prospero allowed to choose two dozen books. This film is full of things to think about. Why these books? Why are they all naked? Why does Gielgud say all the words?[xlix] (From Boatswain: You do assist the storm in Act 1 Scene 1 … - However the part of Ceres is sung by a woman ) A possible explanation is that this device (which most surely it is) is a way of accentuates the feeling of Prospero driving everything. Perhaps it is to stress the Tempest as a storm, or conflict, in Prospero's minds. Thereby allowing Greenaway to punctuate Prospero's words with flashbacks to The Tempest (the play) that are intercut with related books in his library. Perhaps Greenaway's thesis is that to break up the text into the individual characters of the source would detract from his main focus; to unequivocally bind Prosper with his prized books. After a little thought I think it is easy to come around to Greenaway's way of thinking. Gielgud has to speak the words. Otherwise we would be drawn to much into The Tempest(the play). With Gielgud speaking all we are drawn more into the books, the subject of the film, which are at Prospero's (the man) core. To be totally uptodate we should consider the text of the play as Prospero's genome that is only truly understandable through his books. We go from Prospero to his books and then out the other side back to Prospero. This is reaffirmed by book 23 which has 35 plays and room for one more at the beginning after the Preface on nineteen blank pages. Book 24 is The Tempest. Gielgud cries Boatswain and we are linked back to the beginning, the recursion with the book is echoed by the recursion with the dialogue.
This is certainly an interesting film that benefits from frequent playings. I played it a second time, two days after the first and found it far more palatable the second time. Having freed myself of the notion of expecting some variation on staging the Tempest, to accept instead an audio-visual thesis (similar to the coffee-table book mentioned elsewhere).
Gielgud's Prospero speaks to viewers at the end; his head fills the screen and then shrinks and it becomes like one of those superimposed images that have been used throughout the film.
Roger Ebert commented ' …(this) is not a movie in the sense that we usually employ that word; it's an experiment in form and content. It is likely to bore most audiences, but will entrap others--especially those able to free themselves from the notion that movies must tell stories. This film should be approached like a record album or an art book. Each "page" is there to be studied in its complexity and richness …' Leonard Maltin was reserved, commenting 'Original, daring but unsatisfactory adaptation of Shakespeare's The Tempest, with almost all of the dialogue spoken by 87-year-old Gielgud (in the role of Prospero); the other actors are little more than extras, and there's a mindboggling amount of nudity. Crammed with stunning, layered imagery, beautiful production design and cinematography—all of which tends to lessen the impact of the dialogue'. Personally, first time, I did not enjoy hearing Gielgud's voice throughout the film. I immensely enjoyed his Hamlet, the audio cassette of which I have played literally hundreds of time. I was very dismayed when I heard something else with him in when he used the same voice and again with the next play. I very much prefer the Olivier style of acting; where a new look and voice are created for each part; instead of the same voice being used again and again. After hearing him in many parts the voice has eventually become a drone and to have that voice dominate the film only detracts from enjoyment of the whole. Peter Greenaway on an interview on Radio 4 commented about the difference between films and music. Films are normally a once only experience whereas music is played repeatedly. Not for financial reasons (he assures us) he felt that films such as this should be seen a number of times in order to open up the boundaries of film-making. I think extending the public's concept of what is acceptable as a film is a noble concept but the excessive use of nudity (mainly repulsive people) and the droniness of the Gielgud voice make this a difficult film to enjoy first time around. Alonso is allowed to speak 'Thy dukedom I resign' and we dovetail back into the Tempest proper (i.e. the rest of the cast is allowed to speak their lines; abandoning the long format of Prospero speaking alone). The film improves a lot at this point as a conventional film it's like breaking into summer or Narnia when the snow of winter starts to melt by the approach of Aslan. We suddenly have a wealth of voices, now that the books have, possibly, been explored and the wall of sound, needed to balance the lone of Prospero, subsides and we see an imaginative production of 'The Tempest'. I have the soundtrack of the film in my collection and I find that far more palatable than the film. It is certainly an ambitious, masterly produced, highly technical and it was valiant of Gielgud to take on the so very central role but I think I am unable to completely shed my doubts that perhaps it was somewhat pretentious, crutchy (for instance the child peeing over the people in the pool at the start), film by a director who aspires beyond the zenith of Nicholas Roeg (who progressed from doing 2nd unit photography on Lawrence Of Arabia through being the cinematographer on Fahrenheit 451 (Trufffaut's only English film) to the seminal Walkabout (with Jenny Agutter[l]), Don't Look Now (with Julie Christie and Donald Sutherland) and 'The Man Who Fell To Earth'[li] (with David Bowie).
An uncredited net user, from a Shakespeare site containing reviews of Shakespeare related films (including Forbidden Planet) summarised the film: 'All of the weird images and multiple Prospero's bury the actual play, The Tempest. … I found this movie utterly unwatchable. The story, if there is one, confused me and the nudity was awful. This artsy flick serves no purpose in helping the viewer to understand The Tempest, but rather serves as a visual extravaganza. My favourite part about it was that it was on video and I was able to fast forward.'
Another uncredited net user, from the same Shakespeare film site, was far more positive: If any of Shakespeare’s plays fit Greenaway’s over the top film-making style, it is The Tempest. The visuals bring the text to life, and the many songs from the play stream eerily from the mouths of various and delightful spirits and goddesses. … The movie works, but not everyone will like its cerebral and hallucinatory air.
I think to appreciate this film you have to embrace Greenaway's desire for multiple viewings being de rigueur ; to try to see the film as a 129 minute pop video to be watched many times. With this in mind the necessity of Nyman's soundtrack, the visual feast (to those who find the nudity so) and Gielgud playing the lead role become clear. Since having such a highly regarded actor (often thought second after Olivier of English speaking actors of the 20th Century) must make the film far more palatable and less easy to dismiss as pretentious soft porn.
It is interesting how we have The Tempest put into the Folio at the start on 19 pages reserved for it after the Preface. A somewhat incestuous concept perhaps but appropriate for a film like this to at least try to be recursive.
uncredited TIME Magazine reviewer commented: 'Shakespeare illustrated by Peter
Greenaway (The Cook, the Thief, His Wife and Her Lover). Not the British
director's best film but certainly his most: two chockablock hours of Sir John
Gielgud intoning The Tempest while surrounded by naked babes and boys. It's as
if God lived in the
The Animated Tales 1992. Adapted by Leon Garfield
with Voices of Timothy West and Alan Armstrong.
This is a delightful rendition of the play. However, it suffers more than most of the plays in being so severely cut in order to condense it into a 25 minute slot. Whereas others in the series still work in this compressed format (such as Hamlet, The Taming Of The Shrew, As You Like It and Macbeth) this production seems to be left with no middle. It takes quite a few screen minutes to set it up and we have only a moment of middle before it's being resolved. Rather like the twelve minute 1908 film but even more charming. At least we have an interesting scene at the end with a joyous Caliban running about the Isle and a rather poignant image of the returning Prospero. This was something of a treat in a production intended for the very young.
The following is a, necessarily incomplete[liii], list of 'Tempest' inspired art;. It is principally from Harry Rusche's excellent[liv] 'Shakespeare Illustrated' site but is augmented from various art books in my own collection. In some cases I have corrected the titles.
List of Images (A J indicates that the image is available and is reproduced in the addendum. )
J Dadd, Richard. Come Unto These Yellow Sands (1842)
J Fuseli, Henry. Prospero, Miranda and Caliban (1789)[lv]
J Fuseli, Henry. Ariel (c. 1800-10)
J Goodall, Frederick. Miranda (1888)
J Hogarth, William. Scene from the Tempest c 1735-40.[lvi]
L Hughes, Arthur. Ferdinand and Ariel (1923).[lvii]
J Huskisson, Robert. "Come unto These Yellow Sands"
L Maclise, Daniel. Miss Priscilla Horton as Ariel (1838).
J Madox Brown, Lucy Ferdinand and Miranda (1871).[lviii]
J Millais, John Everett. Ferdinand Lured by Ariel. 1848. Pen drawing.[lix]
J Millais, John Everett. Ferdinand Lured by Ariel c. 1849 Study.[lx]
J Millais, John Everett. Ferdinand Lured by Ariel (1849-50)[lxi]
J Miller, F. Ariel (1850)
J Mortimer, John. Caliban (no date)
J Nixon, James Henry. The Tempest
L Paton, Joseph Noel. Caliban (1868)
L Pickersgill, Frederick. Prospero and Miranda (undated)
L Pine, Robert Edge. Miranda (1784)
J Romney, George. The Tempest (c. 1790)
L Scott, David. Ariel and Caliban (1838)
L Severn, Joseph. Ariel: "Where the bee sucks" (1832)
L Severn, Joseph. Ariel: "On the bat's back I do fly"
L Stothard, Thomas. "The Tempest" (1798)
L Thomson, Henry. Prospero and Miranda (1803)
J Townsend, Henry. Ariel
J Ward, James. Miranda and Caliban
L Waterhouse, John. Miranda (1881)[lxii]
J Waterhouse, John. Miranda - The Tempest (1916)
L Wheatley, Francis. "The Tempest," Act V, Scene i
L Wright, Joseph. Ferdinand and Miranda in Prospero's Cell (c. 1789)
A quick tour of these Tempest related Images
These images will be considered for their aesthetic appeal, their choice of character(s) from the play, whether the painting depicts a real, imagined or described scene in the play. A major choice that the artist must make is whether to illustrate a moment in a character's journey or a thematic image[lxiii]. It is perhaps worth noting that with one of the most popular of Shakespeare and Pre-Raphaelite paintings Ophelia, the artist John Everett Millais chose not to show a scene that happens in the play. Instead he chose Gertrude's reported drowning of Ophelia. Taking this approach opens up the artist's possibilities allowing them to visualise something that is not created on stage for them. So we might see something that is reported; alternatively they may imagine a thematic image combining several of the play's concepts.
Dadd, Richard. Come Unto These Yellow Sands (1842)
A Strange merging of the fairy-like and humans in a dark, slightly oppressive rendering of the scene where Ariel singing the painting's title entices Ferdinand and colleagues ashore.
Fuseli, Henry. Prospero, Miranda and Caliban (1789)[lxiv]
A positively demonic Caliban being repelled by the forces of good. A haughty unsympathetic Miranda (in contradistinction to Toyah Wilcox's Miranda in Jarman's 1979 'The Tempest'). An Old Testament Prospero with a pointing figure[lxv]. This seems a simplification of Shakespeare's concept, but as always the painting is a product of it's own time. Assorted fairy creatures seem more evocative of A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Fuseli, Henry. Ariel (c. 1800-10)
A strangely menacing Ariel curiously accompanied by a bat. Vaguely similar to the later image 'Hope' painted by G F Watts (with assistants).[lxvi] This is has a latent, dark gothic, brooding intensity that is slightly attenuated by Ariel. The lower figures see associated with doom. While this is fairly typical for Fuseli, it is one of the darkest images of the play so far discovered.
Goodall, Frederick. Miranda (1888)
Again almost a National Portrait Gallery possibility (except for the lightning strike). The lightning underlying the strength of the Tempest, while a Miranda unconcerned for her own safety looks out to see; presumably to the ship tossing on the sea; but the picture let's us make up our own mind. It is perhaps assuming that we are familiar with the play. Without the shipwreck, or other clues, the painting does not evoke 'The Tempest' the way, for instance, the Romney does. We would need to be told that it was The Tempest to know that we are looking at Miranda. It is a little surprising that Miranda has dark hair. Perhaps because of her gentleness and youth and through exposure to the Madox Brown and the Waterhouse we expect her to be blonde or red-headed. The dark hair makes her seem, perhaps, a little more mature; less light.
Hogarth, William. Scene from the Tempest c 1735-40.[lxvii]
Hogarth chooses a thematic image. Ferdinand stepping out of the water, a jealous (?) Caliban, an angelic and musical Ariel, a watchful and particularly paternal Prospero and a somewhat stonished Miranda (in keeping with the text). The painting is further stylelised by the inclusion of an open book at her feet and animals charmed by her presence. (An aspect of Miranda picked up in Wilcox's film 'Forbidden Planet').
Huskisson, Robert. "Come unto These Yellow Sands" (Presumably from 1873-6)
This image was painted about thirty years after Richard Dadd's image of the same name. It is broadly similar to the earlier painting but crossed with the Henry Townsend painting of Ariel. The danger of the shipwreck is passed and we enter into a fairytale ballet.
Madox Brown, Lucy Ferdinand and Miranda (1871).[lxviii]
William Michael Rossetti in his book 'The Pre-Raphaelites and their Lives' unfortunately lists very little information about this painting of a scene from the play painted by his future wife (she married him three years after she painted this[lxix]; whilst married to Ford Madox Brown.) He are told who the sitters were: Ferdinand (Lucy's brother Oliver), Miranda (her sister Catherine, Prospero (William Michael himself) and the King Of Naples (Ford Madox Brown). This strongly pre-Raphaelite image[lxx] has a Polonius behind the drapery look[lxxi] to it but is enriched with symbolism and soulfulness.
Millais, John Everett. Ferdinand Lured by Ariel. 1848. Pen drawing.[lxxii]
Millais, John Everett. Ferdinand Lured by Ariel c. 1849 Study.[lxxiii]
Millais, John Everett. Ferdinand Lured by Ariel (1849-50)[lxxiv]
These three images of a scene in the play will be considered together. The first two are included as they show the development of the concept. It is interesting how different parts of the image changed over the three versions. The first image is more suggestive of Peter Pan[lxxv] which suggests Ariel is in fact Tinkerbell! Ferdinand is aged a lot in the second image and then Millais settles on an interim age in the final version. In the first image the boy Ferdinand seems to have been asked if he wants to go play to which he will boyishly agree. In the middle a cherubic Ariel leads a middle aged Ferdinand away. Finally an almost siren-like Ariel leads a young Ferdinand through the Isle. The third image is the only one of the three that looks pre-Raphaelite. The fairies change to bats and in detail but are grotesque in all three versions. The third is the best balanced. It balances sobriety with humour and playfulness. The only striking colour in the final image is that of Ferdinand's costume/ The fairies are tinged with green that makes them disappear into the vegetation. One of the most significant differences between the images is the disappearing shipwreck. Presumably he chose to remove this to avoid overloading the picture. Include the shipwreck here and the picture looks unbalanced. It is however, perfectly acceptable to have a passive Miranda set against the shipwreck, as created by Waterhouse. But the extremes of the shipwreck and the lighter aspects of the play do not find a happy equilibrium. The detail is extraordinary. Millais claimed "I have done every blade of grass and leaf distinct".
Miller, F. Ariel (1850)
This non-specific painting of Ariel could almost have been painted by Arthur Rackham. It is interesting to compare with the other Ariels here. The comparatively small wings are interesting; they do not appear very practical. Compare the scale of these wings to that of the butterflies. This is a slightly surprising image as it doesn't show Ariel doing any of the things we most associate with that character. For instance, enticing Ferdinand ashore (see two images discussed here that are based on the line "Come unto these yellow sands", or deceiving Ferdinand (Full fathom five), or orchestrating the shipwreck, or being resentful of his imprisonment by Prospero. Here Ariel seems at rest and almost contented.
Mortimer, John. Caliban (no date. He lived 1740 to 1779)
A non specific moment[lxxvi]. A rather forlorn, resigned, world wearied Caliban. Comparatively low bestial resemblance. A sympathetic image of Caliban as it invites our pity and is not the least bit threatening. Caliban is in profile and so is passive to the viewer. A portrait at an introspective moment.[lxxvii]
Nixon, James Henry. The Tempest
This painting is a little Turneresque because of the sheer shining, swirling light[lxxviii]. At the centre of the waves is Ariel. This Ariel is more of an angel than a fairy. Presumably the sole seamen that we see is intended to be Ferdinand. If someone interested in Shakespeare had been told that this image was based on one of the plays, they would be able to guess the play.
This is another image of characters at rest. Again if one were told that this image depicted a scene from Shakespeare it would be difficult to guess which. It could even be Hamlet.
Romney, George. The Tempest (c. 1790)
This is a dramatic thematic montage of the mariners suffering in the storm, Prospero cognisant and using his hands almost like a conductors to indicate his control of the situation. Miranda perhaps waving to the survivors. Presumably, that is Ariel in the top left hand corner of the image. Similarly, on the ropes; perhaps suggesting that Ariel is so fleet of foot he becomes multi-present. The white light in that area presumably emanating from Ariel possible suggesting that despite the sinking being deliberate, it is nonetheless benign (not a hair perish'd). It may also mean to suggest an almost Duncan-like holiness about Prospero. This image cleverly shows the Tempest itself (a rapidly recognisable image) and contrasts the reaction of Prospero (benign overseer) and Miranda (obedient and helpless daughter).
Townsend, Henry. Ariel
This image suggests a rather playful Ariel. In fact the feel of the image is almost a cross between a female Mickey Rooney as Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream and Arthur Hughes Ophelia (the one where a soulful Ophelia gathers reeds in her arms, not the one where she is standing with flowers in one arm and touching a branch with the other with long hair cascading down her back). It is also similar in style to that Ophelia painting; not merely because they are both framed in a semicircle but they both show the subject alone, amongst flowers. The lone Ariel is reclining, naked and with quite large wings with the sun large behind her; suggesting a magical twilight world echoed by the other worldliness of the strangely curled foliage.
Ward, James. Miranda and Caliban (Lived 1769 to 1859. )[lxxix]
A loosed out of hell collection of gargoyles and Caliban. A somewhat stern, severe and unsympathetic Miranda basking in the light of a rainbow. Presumably the rainbow indicates that the storm is now over and the forces of good are on the move. The monsters, as perhaps they are best termed, are dimly lit and adorned with snakes. Miranda has a, presumably tamed, snake at her foot with a butterfly by her toe. Next to that and near to Caliban's foot is a skull. There seem few grey areas in the characterisation here. Miranda has an almost holy goodness about her (with a dove above her head), whereas Caliban is just plain evil. It would be interesting to be able to date this. Ward was just becoming active as an artist when the adaptation of 'The Tempest' was still dominant on stage. By late 20th Century standards this is an unsatisfying image. We lose the debate that Shakespeare is all about; the grey areas that the playwright gives us to grapple with. In this image Caliban is simply bad (and presumably deserves everything that happens to him).
Waterhouse, John. Miranda - The Tempest (1916)
"She stands swaying against the storm, the breakers crash upon the beach, and under the looming cliffs in a welter of waves the doomed ship plunges like a terrified stallion. The painting of the rocks, wild water and the figure of the girl have been brought to perfection …" (Hobson). A film could be made where Miranda does see the shipwreck occur. In the text she merely reports the fact. 'I have suffered/With those that I saw suffer!' This is a striking, dramatic and very late pre-Raphaelite rendering of a thematic image of the play. The ending of the ship's journey contrasting with the commencement of Miranda's. The wind that has helped devastate the ship blows wildly through Miranda's hair possibly suggesting her imminent sexual awakening. This is a very popular image. It is present in many pre-Raphaelite books, calendars and posters.
In a recent lecture to the annual January Shakespeare In Performance course Vivian Thomas stated that Shakespeare wrote Troilus and Cressida for the 20th Century[lxxx]. He might have said the same thing about the Tempest. Since with the growth of technology Shakespeare's incredibly avant-garde play, written just as the ancestors of our 'special effects' were introducing their devices in theatres, can be given a new lease of life. Starting with the charming 1908 production and moving through the 1980 Derek Jarman 'The Tempest', film has been used to advantage in providing interesting adaptations of the play. Peter Greenaway has produced a complex, yet ultimately understandable adaptation and exploration of the play using contemporary special effects, arguably the acting voice of the Century and hypnotic music to provide an cerebral audio-visual for the viewer (or user). The animated version will delight all. Little art has been found for the 20th Century but research seems to be in a fairly early stage. Undoubtedly a lot has been produced, but there does not seem to be a co-ordinated attempt to catalogue it. The Shakespeare Illustrated is fine as a starting point but it barely scratches the surface. It is interesting to see changes over the years. For instance, the way the Pre-Raphaelites found a natural subject in that play and the increasing compassion for Caliban. The survival of the play into other art forms underlines something very fundamental that Shakespeare rather than merely being a stealer of other men's stories was a first class weaver of threads of stories into a complex framework of believable human beings. Shakespeare's work survives because it is so very well conceived; the plays are populated by real people in understandable situations in their journey through life. Moreover Shakespeare was able to merge the human issues with the technology available to him when he wrote the play: storms and masques had suddenly become do-able - part of his stagecraft. It is little wonder then that four hundred years on The Tempest still entertains, puzzles and educates with the filmcraft available to us now.
T H E E N D
[i] That is the original thirty seven, The Two Noble Kinsmen and the two recently acknowledged (though not universally) Edmund Ironside and Edward III.
[ii] Internet Movie Database 1st July 2000 lists 404.
[iii] It is
only rarely performed; partly because of the extreme technical skill required
in some of the parts. This 1816 opera was broadcast by Radio 3 from the Royal
[iv] This near fact is often cited by Stratfordians in the authorship as damning evidence against the claim that the plays were written by the Earl Of Oxford.
ranking order at the
[vi] This is just an example. There is also W. H. Auden.'s The Sea and the Mirror, and doubtless more J. (http://www.humanities.ualberta.ca/emls/iemls/shaksper/files/SPINOFF%20BIBLIO.txt.)
Patagonia covers nearly all of the southern mainland of
[viii] Although it is sometimes ascribed to his student Weldon.
[ix] Text T Shadwell 'after Shakespeare'.
[x] For brevity, I shall have to skip the rest. In a periphery search I have uncovered a list by Karen Mercedes (firstname.lastname@example.org) who also lists: Lee Hoiby - THE TEMPEST, J. Eaton - THE TEMPEST ,
Halevy - LA TEMPESTA, Gyorgy Ligeti - THE TEMPEST for operatic links alone.
[xi] In an interesting article entitled Sibelius' Farewell someone calling themselves Inkpot Sibelius Nutcase (http://inkpot.com/classical/sibtempest.html) likens this to The Tempest being Shakespeare's farewell to the stage.
[xii] Comments of the performance refer to a night at Birmingham Hippodrome during the 1994 tour.
[xiii] Labelled as 18.104.22.168:22.214.171.124/3 perc/hp/cel/el-pno/tape/strings/2 sopranos on an Arne Nordheim site (Wilhelm Hansen).
[xiv] Hazlitt in his Shakespear's (sic) Characters of 1817 wrote the savage Caliban, half brute, half demon
[xv] The Concise Oxford Dictionary states: Middle English via Old French from Latin audientia, from audire ‘hear’. The New Shorter Oxford Dictionary states: 1 Hearing; attention to what is spoken. arch. LME.
[xvi] Not five minutes as Richard Eyre states on the back of the video.
[xvii] According to the on-screen titles in the BFI video "Silent Shakespeare".
[xviii] This is a low-budget filmJ! Moreover, this is pre-Greenaway, so Prospero only has the one book that Shakespeare gave him.
[xix] In the play, of course, Prospero recounts Miranda's childhood. However, this is a silent film so they would either have to use flashbacks (quite possibly non an established technique in storytelling) or dramatise Miranda's history.
1899 to 1912 Méliès made more than 400 films, the best of which combine
burlesque, and pantomime to treat themes of fantasy in a playful and absurd fashion' (Britannica). Personally I like his 'Trip to the Moon' and have stood to see it a few times at the South Bank's
[xxi] This film has only a minor link with the theme of this essay and is included only as an attempt at completeness and to give a further example of the range of adaptation. This very light link can be compared with the more substantial.
[xxii] "In the final decade of the 21st Century men and women in rocket ships landed on the moon. By 2200 AD they had reached the other planets of our solar system. Almost at once there followed the hyperdrive through which the speed of light was first attained and later greatly surpassed. And so at last mankind began the conquest and colonisation of deep space. United Planets Cruiser C57D. Now more than a year out from Earthbase on a special mission to the planetary system of the great main sequence star Altair." (Transcribed from the video.) It is interesting that it sees the birth of space travel as being a long way away; with "all" of our neighbour planets being visited within 10 years of that. Whereas, of course, the first moon landing was a mere 13 years away, and now 31 years after that even a Mars manned landing seems a long way, away.
[xxiii] He was so popular that he was the first robot star since Metropolis (The Encyclopaedia of Science Fiction). Metropolis, of course, being Fritz Lang's seminal 1926 silent Science Fiction film.
[xxiv] Usually spelt this way on the Internet, though occasionally spelt with a single l.
[xxv] I think they had forgotten about 'This Island Earth'. Perhaps it's similar to theatre critics who call 'Romeo and Juliet' or 'Antony Cleopatra' the "greatest love tragedy in the language" according to which one they are reviewing. (See John Moore's entertaining essay written in 1999 on 'The New Stage at the RST'' page 6 discussing the 'review' of Antony and Cleopatra by Charles Spencer. )
[xxvi] Based on CardenioJ!
[xxvii] I.E. because of his previous work with Lassie.
[xxviii] Forbidden Planet was the first mainstream film to have the music performed entirely by electronic instruments, including the Theremin. The soundtrack took a year to be created. (Fusion Anomaly).
[xxix] In contrast to Pauline Kael's review (Cinemania) of the 1988 Crusoe which she thinks suggests a revised Tempest where Prospero and Caliban discover that they are brothers.
[xxx] Refer to the source where Prospero finally looks at the monster Caliban and says, "This thing of darkness I / Acknowledge mine" (5.1.275-6) The line needn't have any profound meaning in context, but Leslie Fiedler, for one, has pointed out its obvious possibilities. (Rick Erlich's Forbidden Planet Page). I have not been able to discover if these words were inspirational in producing the variation on the Tempest shown in this film/
[xxxi] The date of this film is strangely missing from the video's packaging. The internet gives the date as 1960 (Eonline.com).
[xxxii] Lee Remick worked again with Richard Burton in The Medusa Touch 18 years later in 1978.
Maurice Evans worked with George Schaefer again in 1954 with Evans playing the
lead in Macbeth. Judith Anderson played Lady Macbeth. This production is
available on video and excerpts are present on a
[xxxiv] Who played Malcolm in Orson Welles' 1948 production of Macbeth.
Remick was making "
[xxxvi] Unsurprisingly, an early job for Jarman was working as set designer and production designer in the 1971 surrealistic Ken Russell film 'The Devils'.
[xxxvii] Such as Caliban being suckled by a repulsive Sycorax.
was filmed entirely on location at Stoneleigh Abbey and
[xxxix] No relation to the director of Forbidden Planet.
recently did the design for the RSC's
[xli] Broadcast, I believe, as part of a channel 4 Derek Jarman season.
[xlii] Another example is Aerial and Prospero arguing Aerial's release is near the end of the film but is Act 1 Scene 2 of the play.
[xliii] Unless a certain Mr Branagh is directing.
[xliv] We are on a Greek Isle after all.
[xlv] About 10 out of however many hundreds or thousands of copies that Amazon has sold.
[xlvi] These reviews viewed 1st July 2000 and dating back to August 1998.
[xlvii] Michael Nyman confused many people with his soundtrack to the 'The Draughtsman's Contract", which was also a collaboration with Nyman; his music sounded so baroque and Bach-like that people thought they were encountering previously undiscovered works of Bach.
[xlviii] The books include: Book 1 - The Book Of Water (which Prospero uses to raise the Tempest).Book 2 - A Book of Mirrors, Book 5 - Architecture and Other Music, Book 6 - An Atlas Belonging to Orpheus, Book of Anatomy,
Book of universal cosmography, The Book Of Colours, The Book Of Love (accompanied by Ferdinand wooing Miranda). A Book Of Utopias (Gonzalo's had I plantation of this isle), 17 Love of Ruins, 20 - A Book Of Motion
21 - The Book Of Mythologies. Greenaway seems to have changed the running order of the books part way through filming the project as well as re-arranging the text to suit his concept.
[xlix] Presumably it wasn't because after buying the services of Gielgud they could only avoid extras; whom they couldn't even afford to clothe.
[l] Who joined the National Theatre in 1973 to play Miranda in The Tempest!
[li] Roeg's work does benefit from repeated viewings, except in The Man Who Fell To Earth as the whole story is simply not present in any form. It is a captivating film with a broad sweep, nonetheless.
[lii] This is presumably by a reader rather by someone who is paid to write reviews; the magazine simply does not qualify. I include it as part of a range of views and reviews.
[liii] I have not been able to locate Arthur Rackham's Tempest Illustrations. Apparently 20 went into the 1909 illustrated Shakespeare book.
[liv] In a never mind the quality feel the width way; most of his scans are of poor quality and where they are offered from other sites they tend to be presented in higher resolution. As a central Shakespeare Art reference it is unexcelled.
[lv] This is not at Shakespeare Illustrated. However, an image of the engraving from the painting of Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery is present in The Oxford Shakespeare edition of the play (page 8).
[lvi] A monochrome image of this is provided in The Oxford Shakespeare edition of the play.
[lvii] Cannot locate this at all; only a note that Hughes omitted the fairies (in the Victorian Web).
[lviii] Another image not even mentioned at Shakespeare Illustrated but printed in Rossetti.
[lix] This pen drawing is from Milner.
[lx] This interesting study is from Milner.
[lxi] Not present on Shakespeare Illustrated but available in a number of Pre-Raphaelite books. For example the William Michael Rossetti (see bibliography).
[lxii] Details of this lost, i.e. not merely present on the Internet, painting are scare but Hobson reports that it was about half the size of 'Miranda - The Tempest'. The latter being painted thirty-five years after the original 'Miranda' was considered the more accomplished painting.
[lxiii] I have not been able to locate any William Blake images for 'The Tempest'!
[lxiv] This is not at Shakespeare Illustrated. However, an image of the engraving from the painting of Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery is present in The Oxford Shakespeare edition of the play (page 8).
[lxv] Rather suggestive of a rather more famous piece of art.
[lxvi] Owned by the TATE Gallery.
[lxvii] A monochrome image of this is provided in The Oxford Shakespeare edition of the play.
[lxviii] Another image not even mentioned at Shakespeare Illustrated but printed in Rossetti.
[lxix] Interestingly, in the portrait of her that Dante Gabriel Rossetti gave Lucy as a wedding present she looks remarkably like his mistress Jane Morris (nee Burden); wife, of course, of his friend William Morris.
[lxx] Apparently depicting an illegal move …
[lxxi] This observing scene is also emulated in the much later (1917) J W Waterhouse image 'Fair Rosamund'.
[lxxii] This pen drawing is from Milner.
[lxxiii] This interesting study is from Milner.
[lxxiv] Not present on Shakespeare Illustrated but available in a number of Pre-Raphaelite books. For example the William Michael Rossetti (see bibliography).
[lxxv] Sir James Barrie did not write Peter Pan until 1897; perhaps he had seen this ink drawing!
[lxxvi] Rather like Falstaff in the Gower Memorial.
[lxxvii] This could almost hang at the National Portrait Gallery. It is executed in a style that makes , perhaps the once unpalatable Caliban palatable.
[lxxviii] Though not reproduced faithfully in the print in this essay's Addendum.
postcard of this painting is available in the RSC shop in
[lxxx] Referring to that play's success in the 20th Century compared to the three preceding ones.
Ash, Russell Sir John Everett Millais (London: Pavillion, 1996) ISBN 1-85793-792-9.
Barton, Anne The New Penguin Shakespeare (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1968). ISBN 0-14-070713-1.
Browning, Robert Caliban Upon Setebos (WWW:
Cinemania 97 CD-ROM (USA: Microsoft, 1996) (used for cast and crew lists and reviews; the latter being credited in the essay where used)
Clute, John Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopaedia (London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995) ISBN 0 7513 0202 3.
Encarta 2000 Multimedia Encyclopaedia (USA: Microsoft, 1999 – but updated monthly via the internet)
Encylopaedia Britannica 99 Multimedia Edition. (USA: Britannica, 1998)
Erlich, Rich English FST page/Forbidden Planet (WWW: http://miavx1.muohio.edu/~erlichRD/forb.htm, 2000)
Fusion Anomaly: Forbidden Planet Page (WWW: http://www.dromo.com/fusionanomaly/forbiddenplanet.html, 2000)
Greenaway, Peter Prospero's Books FILM ( ,1991) with cast: John Gielgud Prospero, Michael Clark - Caliban, Michel Blanc - Alonso, Erland Josephson - Gonzalo, Isabelle Pasco - Miranda, Tom Bell - Antonio, Kenneth Cranham - Sebastian, Mark Rylance - Ferdinand, Gerard Thoolen - Adrian, Pierre Bokma - Francisco, Jim van der Woude - Trinculo, Michiel - Stephiow, Paul Russell - Ariel, James Thierree - Ariel, Emil Wolk - Ariel, Marie Angel - Iris, Ute Lemper - Cory, Deborah Conway - Juno. Crew: Producer - Yoshinobu Numano, Katsufumi Nakamura, Director -Peter Greenaway, Screenwriter - Peter Greenaway (adapted from the play The Tempest by William Shakespeare), Editor - Marina Bodbyl, Cinematographer -Sacha Vierny, Composer - Michael Nyman, Production designer - Ben Van Os, Jan Roelfs.
Hardy, Phil Science Fiction: The Aurum Film Encyclopaedia (London: Aurum Press Ltd, 1984-1005) ISBN 1 85410 382 2.
Hazlitt, William Characters
Of Shakespear's Plays (WWW:
Hobson, Anthony J W Waterhouse (London: Phaidon, 1989) ISBN 0714828645
Inkpot Sibelius's Farewell (WWW: http://inkpot.com/classical/sibtempest.html, 2000)
Jarman, Derek The Tempest FILM (England: , 1969)
Kermode, Frank The Arden Shakespeare: The Tempest (London: Routledge, 1958 - sixth edition). ISBN 0 415 02704 7.
Mazursky, Paul - Tempest FILM (USA: , 1982) 140 minutes. With cast: John Cassavetes - Phillip,
Gena Rowlands- Antonia, Susan Sarandon - Aretha, Vittorio Gassman - Alonzo, Raul Julia - Kaliban,
Molly Ringwald - Miranda, (also with Sam Robards, Paul Stewart, Anthony Holland ). Crew: Director - Paul Mazursky, 2nd unit director- Donn Cambern, Co-screenwriter - Leon Capetanos, Editor - Donn Cambern, Photography - Donald McAlpine, Music - Stomu Yamashita, Song- Danny Elfman, Costumes - Albert Wolsky.
Mercedes, Karen Re Operatic Sources (WWW: http://vocalist.org/html/9804/msg00068.html, 2000).
Milne, Tom The TimeOut Film Guide (Ed) (London: The Penguin Group, 1991) ISBN 0-14-014592-3. Geoff Andrew wrote Forbidden Planet review.
MIT The Tempest
Nichols, Peter The Encyclopaedia of Science Fiction (St Albans: Granada Publishing Limited, 1981) ISBN 0 586 05380 8. CD-ROM version also consulted.
Parris, Leslie The Pre-Raphaelites ( London: Tate Gallery Publications, 1984 second reprinting 1996). ISBN 1-85437-144-4.
Pickering, Kenneth Macmillan Master Guides: The Tempest (London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1986) ISBN 0-333-40260-X.
Orgel, Stephen: The
Rossetti, William Michael The Pre-Raphaelites and their World (London: The Folio Society, 1995)
Rusche, Harry; Shakespeare
Schaefer, George The
Tempest FILM (USA: 1960, released 1983). Cast: Crew: A Presentation of Films For The
Stagebill Dance Of Healing (WWW: http://www.stagebill.com/Dance/features/featuresarchive/bruce.html, 2000) (Article on Christoper Bruce, incidently mentioning The Tempest Ballet of 1979).
Snow, Percy The Tempest FILM (1908)
Walker, John with Leslie Halliwell[lxxx] Halliwell's Film Guide - Eighth Edition (London: Granada Publishing, 1992) ISBN 0-586-09173-4.
Wells, Stanley (Ed) Summerfolk (Ebrington: Long Barn Books, 1997) ISBN 0 952 8285 29.
Wilcox, Fred M Forbidden Planet FILM (USA: MGM, 1956) with cast: Walter Pidgeon - Dr. Morbius,
Anne Francis -Altaira, Leslie Nielsen - Cmdr. Adams, Warren Stevens - Lt. "Doc" Ostrow, Jack Kelly -Lt. Farman, Richard Anderson - Chief Quinn, Earl Holliman - Cook, George Wallace - Bosun, Bob Dix - Grey, Jimmie Thompson - Youngerford, James Drury - Strong, Harry Harvey Jr. - Randall, Roger McGee - Lindstrom, Peter Miller - Moran, Morgan Jones - Nichols, Richard Grant - Silvers and Robby the Robot. Crew: Producer - Nicholas Nayfack, Director - Fred M. Wilcox, Fred McLeod Wilcox, Screenwriter - Cyril Hume, based on a story by Irving Block and Allen Adler, Editor - Ferris Webster, Cinematographer - George Folsey, Composer- Louis Barron and Bebe Barron, Art design - Cedric Gibbons, and Arthur Lonergan, Set designer Edwin B. Willis and Hugh Hunt, Special effects - A. Arnold Gillespie and Warren Newcombe and Irving G. Reis and Joshua Meador, Makeup - William Tuttle, Costumes - Helen Rose and Walter Plunkett.